100+ Blockchain And Cryptocurrency Terms

On this page, you will find all those cryptocurrency terms you need to know, their definition, plus the additional information you need to know to understand each term fully.

Cryptocurrency terms

To make the terms and concepts easier to understand, we have divided them into categories. 

For quick navigation, click over the category you are interested in in the Table of Contents. 

Table of Contents

General Terms

The General Terms category encompasses broader concepts, tools, and practices relevant to the cryptocurrency ecosystem.


Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, specialized hardware designed for mining cryptocurrencies.

Atomic Swap

A peer-to-peer exchange of different cryptocurrencies or assets without intermediaries or centralized exchanges (CEX). Atomic swaps use smart contracts and cryptographic techniques to ensure either parties receive the agreed-upon assets or cancel the swap.


Bitcoin Improvement Proposal is a formal document that outlines proposed changes or enhancements to the Bitcoin protocol or related technologies. BIPs are submitted by developers and community members for review and discussion before implementation. (https://github.com/bitcoin/bips)

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

A property of distributed systems that allows them to reach consensus despite the presence of faulty or malicious nodes. Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus algorithms ensure the network can operate correctly even if some nodes fail or behave dishonestly.


Acronyms are commonly used in the cryptocurrency and investment communities, encouraging individuals to conduct thorough research and due diligence before making any financial decisions or investments. It emphasizes the importance of understanding the risks and potential rewards of a particular project or investment opportunity.


The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is the runtime environment for executing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It provides a decentralized and Turing-complete virtual machine that lets developers write and deploy smart contracts in Solidity or other programming languages compatible with the Ethereum platform.


A website or application that dispenses small amounts of cryptocurrencies as rewards for completing tasks or viewing advertisements.


The property of a cryptocurrency or asset allows each unit to be mutually interchangeable with any other unit of the same type. Fungibility ensures that all units have the same value and can be used interchangeably in transactions.


The Graphics Processing Unit is a computer hardware component used for rendering graphics and is often repurposed for mining cryptocurrencies.


A unit of measurement is used to denote the amount of gas in transactions on the Ethereum blockchain. Gas is the unit used to measure the computational work required to execute operations or contracts on the Ethereum network. Gwei is a subunit of Ether, with 1 Ether equivalent to 1,000,000,000 Gwei.


A programmed event in which the reward for mining new blocks is halved, reducing the rate at which new coins are created, commonly associated with Bitcoin.

HD Wallet

A Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet that generates a hierarchical tree of keys derived from a single master key or seed phrase. It enables the creation of multiple addresses and improves security and privacy.


The cryptocurrency community often uses a misspelling of “hold” to encourage holding onto assets instead of selling.


Initial Coin Offering is a fundraising method for new cryptocurrency projects where tokens are sold to investors.

Immutable Ledger

A blockchain ledger that cannot be altered, tampered with, or deleted once transactions are recorded and confirmed. Immutability ensures the integrity and transparency of transaction history, making it resistant to censorship and fraud.


The ability of different blockchain networks and protocols to communicate and interact with each other seamlessly. Interoperability enables the transfer of assets, data, and functionality between different blockchains, improving scalability, efficiency, and user experience in decentralized applications.


Know Your Customer is a process used by financial institutions and cryptocurrency exchanges to verify the identity of their customers to prevent money laundering and fraud.

Lighting Network

A layer-two protocol built on top of a blockchain, such as Bitcoin, is designed to enable fast and cheap transactions by creating payment channels between users.


A full node in a cryptocurrency network performs additional functions, such as facilitating instant transactions or providing privacy features, often requiring a certain amount of coins to be held as collateral.

Merkle Tree

A data structure is used in blockchain technology to summarize and verify the integrity of large data sets efficiently. It organizes transaction data into a hierarchical tree, with each leaf representing a transaction and each non-leaf node representing a cryptographic hash of its child nodes.

Network fees

Network fees refer to the charges for processing transactions or executing smart contracts on a blockchain network. These fees are typically paid in the native cryptocurrency of the network (such as Ether for Ethereum) and serve as incentives for miners or validators to validate and include transactions in blocks.

Paper wallet

A physical document containing a cryptocurrency wallet’s private and public keys is often used as cold storage.


Peer-to-peer is a network or transaction model that involves direct interaction between participants without intermediaries.

QR Code

Quick Response Code, a two-dimensional barcode that can be scanned with a smartphone to access information quickly, is often used to represent cryptocurrency addresses.


A slang term used in the cryptocurrency community to describe the situation when a trader experiences significant losses or gets “wrecked” by a market downturn or unfavorable trade.


The smallest unit of Bitcoin equals one hundred millionth of a Bitcoin (0.00000001 BTC). The term is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator(s) of Bitcoin.

Satoshi Nakamoto

The pseudonymous creator(s) of Bitcoin, whose true identity remains unknown. Satoshi Nakamoto published the Bitcoin whitepaper in 2008 and mined the first (genesis block) of the Bitcoin blockchain in 2009 before disappearing from public view.


A separate, interoperable blockchain connected to a main blockchain allows the transfer of assets or data between the two chains. Sidechains are used to scale and enhance the functionality of blockchain networks without affecting their main chains.

Smart Contract

Self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code, automatically executing actions when predefined conditions are met.

Smart Contract Platform

A blockchain platform that supports the execution of smart contracts, enabling developers to deploy decentralized applications (dApps) and programmable transactions. Smart contract platforms provide infrastructure for developers to create and deploy smart contracts, manage decentralized applications, and interact with blockchain networks.

Soft Fork

A type of fork that results in a backward-compatible change to the blockchain’s protocol, allowing nodes that have not upgraded to continue participating in the network. Soft forks typically tighten or restrict consensus rules and do not require all nodes to upgrade simultaneously.


A testnet is a separate instance of a blockchain network used for testing and development purposes. Testnets mimic the functionalities of the mainnet (production network) but operate with test cryptocurrencies that have no real-world value. Developers use testnets to experiment with smart contracts, applications, and network upgrades without risking real assets.


A software program or hardware device used to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies.

Wallet Import Format (WIF)

A standard format represents private keys in a shorter, more user-friendly format. WIF lets users easily import and export private keys between cryptocurrency wallets.


A colloquial term for an individual or entity that holds a significant amount of cryptocurrency can influence market prices with their transactions.


A document that outlines a cryptocurrency project’s technical details, purpose, and vision is often used to attract investors and developers. 

As an example, Bitcoin whitepaper: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf

Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP)

A cryptographic technique that allows one party (the prover) to prove the validity of a statement to another party (the verifier) without revealing any information beyond the statement’s truthfulness. Zero-knowledge proofs are used to enhance privacy and confidentiality in blockchain transactions.

Blockchain Terms

The Blockchain category includes terms related to the fundamental technology behind blockchain networks, such as blockchain itself, consensus algorithms, cryptographic concepts, and technical protocols.


A unique identifier is used to send and receive cryptocurrencies.


A decentralized, distributed ledger that records all transactions across a network of computers.

Cold Storage

The practice of storing cryptocurrency offline, often in hardware wallets or paper wallets, to protect against hacking or theft.

Cold Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is not connected to the internet is often used for long-term storage.


The process by which a transaction is verified and added to the blockchain by miners or validators. Each new block added to the blockchain represents one confirmation, with additional confirmations increasing the security and irreversibility of the transaction.

Consensus Algorithm

A set of rules and procedures used by a blockchain network to achieve agreement on the validity of transactions and the ordering of blocks. Consensus algorithms ensure the integrity and security of the blockchain by preventing double-spending and maintaining a consistent state.

Cross-Chain Compatibility

Blockchain networks and protocols can communicate and share data or assets across different blockchains or blockchain ecosystems. Cross-chain compatibility enables interoperability between disparate blockchain networks, facilitating the exchange and transfer of assets between different platforms.


A decentralized application runs on a decentralized network, such as a blockchain, with no central authority controlling it.

Decentralized Identity (DID)

A self-sovereign identity system built on blockchain enables individuals to control and manage their digital identities without relying on centralized authorities or intermediaries. DIDs provide users privacy, security, and identity portability across different applications and platforms.

Decentralized Storage

A distributed storage system built on blockchain technology enables users to store and retrieve data in a decentralized and censorship-resistant manner. Decentralized storage platforms leverage blockchain networks and peer-to-peer protocols to store data securely across a distributed network of nodes.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A data structure is used in some blockchain platforms as an alternative to the traditional linear blockchain. DAG-based cryptocurrencies use a graph structure where transactions are linked without blocking or miners, enabling faster processing and scalability.


The act of spending the same cryptocurrency funds more than once, typically by sending conflicting transactions to different recipients or attempting to reverse a transaction before it is confirmed. Double-spending is prevented in blockchain networks through consensus mechanisms like proof of work or stake.


A divergence in a blockchain’s protocol, resulting in two separate chains with different rules and potentially different cryptocurrencies.


A unit of measurement for the computational work required to execute operations on the Ethereum blockchain is used to calculate transaction fees.

Gas Limit

The maximum amount of computational work can be performed in a single Ethereum transaction. Gas limits prevent users from executing transactions that require excessive computational resources and help maintain network stability.

Gas Price

The amount of cryptocurrency (in wei) that users are willing to pay per gas unit to execute an Ethereum transaction. Gas prices determine the priority and speed of transaction processing, with higher prices incentivizing miners to include transactions in blocks more quickly.

Genesis Block

The first block in a blockchain is often hardcoded into the protocol and used as the starting point for the ledger.

Hard Fork

A type of fork that results in a permanent divergence from the original blockchain, creating a new cryptocurrency.


A cryptographic algorithm that converts input data into a fixed-size string of characters is used to secure blockchain transactions.


The process of validating transactions and adding them to the blockchain, typically using computational power to solve complex mathematical puzzles.

Multi-Signature (Multisig)

A security feature that requires multiple signatures to authorize a transaction increases security by requiring various parties’ approval.


A computer or device that participates in maintaining a cryptocurrency network by validating and relaying transactions.


A unique number is used in proof-of-work consensus algorithms to ensure that each block header hash produced by miners is unique. Miners increment the nonce value in their block header until they find a valid hash that meets the difficulty target.

Orphan Block

A valid block that is no longer part of the main blockchain due to being superseded by a longer chain with more proof of work. Orphan blocks occur when multiple miners produce competing blocks at the same height, and only one can be included in the blockchain.


A service or mechanism that provides external data to blockchain-based smart contracts, enabling them to interact with real-world events and information. Oracles are critical in decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, enabling price feeds, market data, and other off-chain information to be securely integrated into smart contract logic.

Private Address

Also known as a private key is a secret alphanumeric code used to access and spend cryptocurrencies associated with a specific public address. It must be kept confidential to prevent unauthorized access to funds.

Private Blockchain

A blockchain network that is operated and controlled by a single organization or consortium of organizations. Private blockchains are permissioned, meaning that access and participation are restricted to approved entities.

Private Key

A secret alphanumeric code that allows access to a cryptocurrency wallet and the ability to spend funds.

Proof of Authority (PoA)

A consensus mechanism in which transactions are validated by approved participants, typically used in private or permissioned blockchain networks.

Proof of Burn

A consensus mechanism in which cryptocurrency tokens are intentionally destroyed (burned) to earn the right to mine or validate blocks on a blockchain network. Proof of burn is used as an alternative to proof of work or proof of stake and helps deter spam or malicious activity.

Proof of Capacity

A consensus mechanism in which miners or validators allocate storage space on their hard drives or solid-state drives (SSDs) to prove their commitment to securing a blockchain network. Proof of capacity rewards participants based on their storage capacity and contribution to network security.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

A consensus mechanism in which validators are chosen to create new blocks and validate transactions based on the number of coins they hold and are willing to “stake” as collateral.

Proof of Work (PoW)

A consensus mechanism in which miners compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks, typically requiring significant computational power.


A set of rules and standards govern participants’ behavior in a cryptocurrency network, such as how transactions are validated and added to the blockchain.

Public Address

Also known as a public key or wallet address, it is a cryptographic string used to receive cryptocurrencies. It is publicly shared and serves as the destination for sending funds.

Public Blockchain

A blockchain network that is open to anyone and allows for decentralized participation by individuals and organizations. Public blockchains are permissionless, meaning anyone can read, write, and validate transactions without authorization.


A protocol upgrade implemented on specific blockchain networks, notably Bitcoin, to address scalability and transaction malleability issues. SegWit separates transaction signature data (witness data) from the transaction data, allowing for more efficient use of block space and enabling additional features such as the Lightning Network.


Secure Hash Algorithm 256-bit is a cryptographic hash function used in Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies to secure transactions and blocks. It generates a fixed-size hash value from input data, making it virtually impossible to reverse-engineer the original data.


Participants in a blockchain network responsible for validating and authenticating transactions and blocks. Depending on the network’s consensus mechanism (such as Proof of Stake or Proof of Work), validators may be rewarded for their efforts in maintaining the security and integrity of the network by proposing or confirming blocks and ensuring consensus among participants.


Extended Public Key is a hierarchical deterministic (HD) wallet feature that allows for generating multiple public addresses from a single master public key. It simplifies wallet management and enhances privacy by reducing the need to reuse addresses.

51% Attack

A scenario in which a single entity or group controls most of the computational power in a cryptocurrency network, allowing them to manipulate transactions and potentially double-spend coins.

Cryptocurrency Terms

In this section you’ll find terms specific to digital currencies, including various types of cryptocurrencies, their features, and mechanisms like ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings) and mining.


An altcoin is any cryptocurrency alternative to Bitcoin. These coins can range from slight variations of Bitcoin’s codebase to entirely new cryptocurrencies with different features or purposes.

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

A Centralized Exchange (CEX) is a cryptocurrency trading platform operated by a single entity, facilitating transactions through centralized control and infrastructure. Binance or Coinbase are examples of Centralized Exchanges.


A digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security operates independently of a central authority.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A Decentralized Exchange (DEX) is a cryptocurrency trading platform that operates without a central authority. It allows users to trade directly with each other using smart contracts or blockchain technology, providing greater privacy and security. Uniswap or Sushiswap are examples of Decentralized Exchanges.


Ethereum Request for Comments 20, a technical standard used for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, enables the creation of tokens.


Ethereum Request for Comments 721 is a technical standard for creating non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on the Ethereum blockchain. ERC-721 tokens are unique digital assets that represent ownership of digital or physical assets such as art, collectibles, or real estate.


A platform where users can buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies.

Fiat Currency

Government-issued currency not backed by a physical commodity, such as the US dollar or the euro.

Limit Order

A type of order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange to buy or sell assets at a specific price or better. Limit orders are not executed immediately but are placed in the order book and executed when the market price reaches the specified limit price.


An NFT is a type of cryptographic token representing ownership or proof of authenticity of a unique digital asset or piece of content, such as artwork, collectibles, or in-game items. Unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ether, which are fungible and interchangeable, each NFT is distinct and cannot be replicated or exchanged on a one-to-one basis.


A type of cryptocurrency designed to have a stable value by pegging its price to a fiat currency or other asset.


A digital asset issued on a blockchain represents ownership of a natural or virtual asset or serves as a utility within a decentralized application.


The economic principles and mechanisms govern tokens’ supply, distribution, and value within a cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Token Standard

A set of rules and specifications governing the creation, issuance, and management of tokens on a blockchain platform. Token standards define token properties, functionalities, and interoperability requirements, facilitating the development of standardized token-based applications and protocols.


A cryptocurrency transfer from one party to another is recorded on a blockchain. Transactions typically include sender and recipient addresses, amounts transferred, transaction fees, and digital signatures to verify authenticity and authorization.

Transaction Fee

The fee paid by users to miners or validators for processing and confirming transactions on a blockchain.


Unspent Transaction Output is a blockchain record indicating the amount of cryptocurrency associated with a specific public address that has not been spent. UTXOs are consumed when used as inputs in new transactions.

Market Terms

This category covers terms relevant to the broader financial aspects of the cryptocurrency market, such as market trends (bull and bear markets), trading strategies, market orders, and market capitalization.


All-Time High is the highest price a cryptocurrency has ever reached.

Bear Market

A market trend characterized by declining prices and pessimism among investors.

Bull Market

A market trend characterized by rising prices and optimism among investors.


Fear of Missing Out is the anxiety or desire to invest in a cryptocurrency due to the fear of missing potential gains.


Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt often spread to create panic or doubt in the cryptocurrency market.

Market Cap

Short for market capitalization, the total value of a cryptocurrency is calculated by multiplying its current price by its total supply.

Market Order

A type of order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange to buy or sell assets at the best available market price. Market orders are executed immediately at the prevailing market price, regardless of price fluctuations.

Stop-Loss Order

A type of order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange to automatically sell assets at a predetermined price to limit potential losses. Stop-loss orders are triggered when the market price exceeds the specified stop price.


Volatility refers to the degree of variation or fluctuation in the price of an asset over time. 

Decenetralized Finance (DeFi) Terms

This category focuses specifically on terms related to Decentralized Finance, a growing sector within the cryptocurrency space that aims to disrupt traditional financial services using blockchain technology. Terms include DeFi platforms, protocols, and concepts like yield farming and liquidity pools.


The distribution of free tokens or coins to cryptocurrency holders, often as part of a promotional campaign or to incentivize participation in a project.

Automated Market Maker (AMM)

An Automated Market Maker (AMM) is a type of decentralized exchange (DEX) that operates using smart contracts to facilitate the exchange of assets without the need for traditional order books. Instead of relying on buyers and sellers to create liquidity, AMMs use liquidity pools where users can deposit funds into a pool to provide liquidity for trading. These pools are automated and use algorithms to determine asset prices based on the ratio of assets in the pool. AMMs are popular for their simplicity, accessibility, and ability to provide liquidity for various trading pairs. Examples include Uniswap, SushiSwap, and PancakeSwap.

Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)

An organization governed by smart contracts and controlled by its members, typically using blockchain technology. DAOs operate without central management or hierarchy, allowing members to collectively make decisions, allocate resources, and govern activities through transparent and programmable rules.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX) 

A cryptocurrency exchange platform that operates without central authority or control, allowing users to trade digital assets directly with each other through smart contracts. DEXs enable peer-to-peer trading, reduce counterparty risk, and provide greater privacy and security than centralized exchanges.


Decentralized Finance is a financial service built on blockchain technology, allowing for peer-to-peer lending, borrowing, and trading without intermediaries.

Governance Token

A cryptocurrency token that grants holders voting rights and decision-making power in a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) or decentralized governance system. Governance tokens enable token holders to participate in protocol upgrades, funding allocation, and other governance-related activities.

Impermanent Loss

Impermanent Loss refers to the temporary decrease in the value of assets that liquidity providers experience when participating in liquidity pools, particularly in automated market maker (AMM) decentralized exchanges. This loss occurs due to the dynamic nature of token prices in the pool. When the prices of tokens change, liquidity providers might receive fewer tokens back than they initially deposited, resulting in the impermanent loss.


The degree to which a cryptocurrency or asset can be bought or sold in the market without significantly impacting its price. High liquidity indicates a large volume of trading activity and tight bid-ask spreads, making entering or exiting positions easier.

Liquidity Pool

A pool of cryptocurrency funds locked in a smart contract or liquidity protocol facilitates trading and provides liquidity to decentralized exchanges (DEXs) or automated market maker (AMM) protocols. Liquidity providers earn fees or rewards for supplying assets to the pool.

Liquidity Provider

A liquidity provider is an entity or individual that contributes assets to a liquidity pool on decentralized platforms, facilitating trading and earning a share of trading fees. They play a key role in ensuring market efficiency and smooth transactions.

Peer-to-peer Lending

Peer-to-peer lending, often abbreviated as P2P lending, is a form of lending that allows individuals to borrow and lend money directly with one another, bypassing traditional financial intermediaries such as banks. In P2P lending, borrowers create loan listings detailing the amount they wish to borrow and the interest rate they are willing to pay. Investors, or lenders, can then choose to fund these loans partially or in full. P2P lending platforms typically facilitate the matching of borrowers and lenders, handle loan servicing, and manage the transfer of funds between parties. These platforms often use technology and algorithms to assess creditworthiness, determine interest rates, and mitigate risk. P2P lending offers borrowers an alternative source of financing and investors an opportunity to earn interest on their capital by providing loans to individuals or businesses.

Yield Farming

A practice in decentralized Finance (DeFi) where users provide liquidity to liquidity pools or automated market maker (AMM) protocols in exchange for rewards or yields in the form of additional tokens or fees. Yield farming strategies aim to maximize returns on cryptocurrency holdings.

Web3 Terms

This category is dedicated to terms related to Web3, the next generation of the internet powered by decentralized technologies such as blockchain. It includes terms associated with Web3 infrastructure, protocols, standards, and tools for decentralized web development.


A term describes the vision of a decentralized internet built on blockchain technology, enabling peer-to-peer interactions and decentralized applications (dApps) without reliance on centralized intermediaries. Web3 aims to democratize data, identity, and value transfer access, fostering a more open, secure, and censorship-resistant digital ecosystem.

Web3 Browser

A web browser designed to support decentralized web technologies and protocols, enabling users to access decentralized applications (dApps), interact with blockchain networks, and explore Web3 infrastructure. Web3 browsers integrate wallet integration, decentralized domain resolution, and support for peer-to-peer networking.

Web3 Developer Tools

Software tools, libraries, and frameworks designed to support the development, testing, and deployment of decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts on the Web3. Web3 developer tools provide developers with resources and utilities for building and interacting with blockchain-based applications and protocols.

Web3 Ecosystem

The network of interconnected projects, communities, and stakeholders contributes to developing, adopting, and evolving decentralized web technologies on the Web3. The Web3 ecosystem encompasses blockchain networks, decentralized applications (dApps), developer communities, infrastructure providers, and users collaborating to build a more open, inclusive, and decentralized internet.

Web3 Infrastructure

The underlying technology stack and infrastructure supporting decentralized web technologies and applications on the Web3. Web3 infrastructure includes blockchain networks, peer-to-peer networks, decentralized storage systems, identity solutions, and other decentralized protocols and services.

Web3 Integration

They incorporate decentralized web technologies and protocols into web applications, platforms, and services. Web3 integration enables traditional web applications to leverage blockchain, decentralized finance (DeFi), and other Web3 innovations to enhance functionality, security, and user experience.

Web3 Protocol

A set of rules, standards, and protocols governing decentralized web technologies and interactions on the Web3. Web3 protocols include blockchain protocols, communication protocols, data protocols, and consensus mechanisms that enable decentralized applications (dApps) and peer-to-peer interactions on the internet.

Web3 Standards

A set of technical specifications, guidelines, and best practices governing the development and implementation of decentralized web technologies on the Web3. Web3 standards ensure interoperability, compatibility, and security across blockchain networks, protocols, and applications.

Web3 Wallet

A software application or browser extension that enables users to interact with decentralized applications (dApps), manage cryptocurrencies, and control their digital identities on the Web3. Web3 wallets support private key management, transaction signing, and decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol integration.

Crypto Safety Terms

This category examines the terms you need to know to navigate the Blockchain and Cryptocurrency spaces safely.

Exit Scam

A fraudulent scheme in which cryptocurrency project creators disappear with investors’ funds by shutting down operations or abandoning the project entirely.


It is a form of market manipulation where traders exploit their privileged position to execute orders ahead of other users, often resulting in unfair advantages and losses for other market participants.

Malicious Contract Approvals

A type of attack in which users inadvertently approve malicious smart contracts to interact with their wallets or execute transactions, leading to unauthorized access or loss of funds.


A fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords, and private keys, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in electronic communication, often through fake websites or emails.

Pump and Dump

A scheme where the price of a cryptocurrency is artificially inflated (“pumped”) by spreading positive information, followed by selling off (“dumping”) the asset for profit.

Pump and Exit

A variant of the pump and dump scheme where the creators of a cryptocurrency project artificially inflate the price to attract investors before abandoning the project and exiting with the funds.

Rug Pull

It is a type of scam in which developers of a cryptocurrency project suddenly abandon the project after attracting investment, causing the token’s value to plummet and leaving investors with significant losses.


Any fraudulent scheme or deceptive practice designed to trick individuals into investing in fake or illegitimate cryptocurrency projects, often promising unrealistic returns or benefits.

Smart Contract Vulnerabilities

Weaknesses or flaws in a smart contract code that attackers can exploit to steal funds or manipulate transactions, such as reentrancy attacks or integer overflow exploits.

Social Engineering

They manipulate individuals into divulging confidential information or performing actions that compromise their security, often through psychological manipulation or deception.


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